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Il sale non fa male!

Ott 16, 2023 | Alimentazione, Lifestyle, Medicina Preventiva

La citazione famosa della scrittrice scandinava Karen Blixen, “La cura per qualsiasi cosa è l’acqua salata: il sudore, le lacrime o il mare“, ha una verità poetica ma si riferisce anche alla nostra realtà biologica come esseri umani.

È da qui che parte questo nuovo video “LONG” sul sale, o per meglio dire, sul sodio, componente fondamentale per il nostro corpo.

Trovi qui sotto tutta la bibliografia e i tipi di sale suggeriti nel video.

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Bibliografia

  • Overlack, A., et al. 1993. Divergent hemodynamic and hormonal responses to varying salt intake in normotensive subjects. Hypertension 22(3): 331–338.
  • 2. Ha, S. K. 2014. Dietary salt intake and hypertension. Electrolyte Blood Press 12(1): 7–18.
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  • Graudal, N. A., A. M. Galloe, and P. Garred. 1998. Effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride: a meta-analysis. JAMA 279(17): 1383– 1391.
  • Kotchen, T. A., et al. 1989. Baroreceptor sensitivity in prehypertensive young adults. 13(6 Pt 2): 878–883; Longworth, D. L., et al. 1980. Divergent blood pressure responses during short-term sodium restriction in hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther 27(4): 544– 546; Weinberger, M. H., et al. 1986. Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension 8(6 Pt 2): II127–II134; Egan, B. M., et al. 1991. Neurohumoral and metabolic effects of short-term dietary NaCl restriction in men. Relationship to salt-sensitivity status. Am J Hypertens 4(5 Pt 1): 416– 421
  • Xiao, K., et al. 2010. Effects of dietary sodium on performance, flight and compensation strategies in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Front Zool 7(11): 1–8.
  • Meneely, G. R., and H. D. Battarbee. 1976. High sodium-low potassium environment and hypertension. Am J Cardiol 38(6): 768– 785; Neal, B. 2014. Dietary salt is a public health hazard that requires vigorous attack. Can J Cardiol 30(5): 502–506.
  • DiNicolantonio, J. J., and S. C. Lucan. 2014. The wrong white crystals: not salt but sugar as aetiological in hypertension and cardiometabolic disease. Open Heart 1. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2014- 000167.
  • Meneely, G. R., and H. D. Battarbee. 1976. High sodium-low potassium environment and hypertension. Am J Cardiol 38(6): 768– 785; Dahl, L. K. 2005. Possible role of salt intake in the development of essential hypertension. 1960. Int J Epidemiol 34(5): 967–972; discussion 972–974, 975–978.
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  • Folkow, B. 2003. [Salt and blood pressure—centenarian bone of contention]. Lakartidningen 100(40): 3142–3147. [Article in Swedish]; Folkow and Ely. Importance of the blood pressure-heart rate relationship. 133–138.
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  • Laragh and Pecker. Dietary sodium and essential hypertension: some myths, hopes, and truths. 735–743; Mac, G. W., Jr. 1948. Risk of uremia due to sodium depletion. JAMA 137(16): 1377; Soloff, L. A., and J. Zatuchni, 1949. Syndrome of salt depletion induced by a regimen of sodium restriction and sodium diuresis. JAMA 139(17): 1136–1139; Grollman, A. R., et al. 1945. Sodium restriction in the diet for hypertension. JAMA 129(8): 533–537.
  • Schroeder. Low sodium chloride diets in hypertension: effects on blood pressure. 458–463.
  • Pearce, E. N., M. Andersson, and M. B. Zimmermann. 2013. Global iodine nutrition: where do we stand in 2013? Thyroid 23(5): 523–528.
  • Dahl. Possible role of salt intake in the development of essential hypertension. 967–972; discussion 972–974, 975–978.
  • DiNicolantonio, O’Keefe, and Lucan. Added fructose: a principal driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its consequences. 372–381; Basu, S., et al. 2013. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross- sectional data. PLoS One 8(2): e57873
  • Reiser, S., et al. 1981. Serum insulin and glucose in hyperinsulinemic subjects fed three different levels of sucrose. Am J Clin Nutr 34(11): 2348–2358.
  • DeFronzo, R. A. 1981. The effect of insulin on renal sodium metabolism. A review with clinical implications. Diabetologia 21(3): 165–171; Vierhapper, H. 1985. Effect of exogenous insulin on blood pressure regulation in healthy and diabetic subjects. Hypertension 7(6 Pt 2): II49–II53.
  • Cambien, F., et al. 1987. Body mass, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. Does plasma insulin explain their relationships? Arteriosclerosis 7(2): 197–202.
  • Christlieb. Is insulin the link between hypertension and obesity? II54– II57; Vasdev, S., and J. Stuckless. 2010. Role of methylglyoxal in essential hypertension. Int J Angiol 19(2): e58–e65.
  • Gleibermann, L. 1973. Blood pressure and dietary salt in human populations. Ecol Food Nutr 2(2): 143–156.
  • Overlack, A., et al. 1993. Divergent hemodynamic and hormonal responses to varying salt intake in normotensive subjects. Hypertension 22(3): 331–338.
  • Food and Nutrition Board. 1989. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; King, J. C., and K. J. Reimers. 2014. Beyond blood pressure: new paradigms in sodium intake reduction and health outcomes. Adv Nutr 5(5): 550–552; Sodium, potassium, body mass, alcohol and blood pressure: the INTERSALT Study. The INTERSALT Co-operative Research Group. J Hypertens Suppl. 1988. 6(4): S584– S586.
  • DiNicolantonio, J. J., S. C. Lucan, and J. H. O’Keefe. 2016. The evidence for saturated fat and for sugar related to coronary heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 58(5): 464–472.
  • Graudal, N. A., T. Hubeck-Graudal, and G. Jurgens. 2011. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (11): Cd004022.
  • Lucan, S. C., and J. J. DiNicolantonio. 2015. How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative. Public Health Nutr 18(4): 571–581; Bray, G. A., S. J. Nielsen, and B. M. Popkin. 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 79(4): 537–543; DiNicolantonio, J. J. 2014. The cardiometabolic consequences of replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or Ω-6 polyunsaturated fats: do the dietary guidelines have it wrong? Open Heart 1: e000032. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2013- 000032.
  • Adler, A. J., et al. 2014. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12): Cd009217.
  • Vollmer, W. M., et al. 2001. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med 135(12): 1019–1028.
  • Graudal, N., et al. 2014. Compared with usual sodium intake, low- and excessive-sodium diets are associated with increased mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens 27(9): 1129–1137.
  • Weder, A. B., and B. M. Egan. 1991. Potential deleterious impact of dietary salt restriction on cardiovascular risk factors. Klin Wochenschr 69(Suppl 25): 45–50.
  • Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. BMJ. 1988. 297(6644): 319– 328.
  • Folkow, B., and D. Ely. 1998. Importance of the blood pressure-heart rate relationship. Blood Press 7(3): 133–138.
  • Overlack, A., et al. 1993. Divergent hemodynamic and hormonal responses to varying salt intake in normotensive subjects. Hypertension 22(3): 331–338.
  • Freedman, D. A., and D. B. Petitti. 2001. Salt and blood pressure. Conventional wisdom reconsidered. Eval Rev 25(3): 267–287.
  • Food and Nutrition Board. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate By Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
  • Ambard, L., and E. Beaujard. “Causes of arterial hypertension.” Arch Gen Med 1 (1904): 520-33.
  • Ghosal A, Qadeer HA, Nekkanti SK, Pradhan P, Okoye C, Waqar D. A Conspectus of Euvolemic Hyponatremia, Its Various Etiologies, and Treatment Modalities: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Cureus. 2023 Aug 12;15(8):e43390. doi: 10.7759/cureus.43390. PMID: 37700952; PMCID: PMC10495223.
  • Bayer, R., D. M. Johns, and S. Galea. 2012. Salt and public health: contested science and the challenge of evidence-based decision making. Health Aff (Millwood) 31(12): 2738–2746.
  • Overlack, A., et al. 1993. Divergent hemodynamic and hormonal responses to varying salt intake in normotensive subjects. Hypertension 22(3): 331–338.
  • Denton. Evolutionary aspects of the emergence of aldosterone secretion and salt appetite. 245–295.
  • Chasis. Salt and protein restriction: effects on blood pressure and renal hemodynamics in hypertensive patients. 711–715.
  • Reiser, S., et al. 1979. Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. II. Effect on fasting blood insulin, glucose, and glucagon and on insulin and glucose response to a sucrose load. Am J Clin Nutr 32(11): 2206–2216.
  • Bray, G. A., and B. M. Popkin. 2014. Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes? Health be damned! Pour on the sugar. Diabetes Care 37(4): 950–956.
  • Park and Kwock. Sodium intake and prevalence of hypertension,coronary heart disease, and stroke in Korean adults. 92–96.
  • Graudal, N. A., A. M. Galloe, and P. Garred. 1998. Effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride: a meta-analysis. JAMA 279(17): 1383– 1391.
  • Feldman, R. D., A. G. Logan, and N. D. Schmidt. 1996. Dietary salt restriction increases vascular insulin resistance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(4): 444–451; Feldman, R. D., and N. D. Schmidt. 1999. Moderate dietary salt restriction increases vascular and systemic insulin resistance. Am J Hypertens 12(6): 643–647.
  • Kotchen, T. A., et al. 1989. Baroreceptor sensitivity in prehypertensive young adults. 13(6 Pt 2): 878–883; Longworth, D. L., et al. 1980. Divergent blood pressure responses during short-term sodium restriction in hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther 27(4): 544– 546; Weinberger, M. H., et al. 1986. Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension 8(6 Pt 2): II127–II134; Egan, B. M., et al. 1991. Neurohumoral and metabolic effects of short-term dietary NaCl restriction in men. Relationship to salt-sensitivity status. Am J Hypertens 4(5 Pt 1): 416– 421.
  • Reiser. Serum insulin and glucose in hyperinsulinemic subjects fed three different levels of sucrose. 2348–2358.
  • DiNicolantonio, O’Keefe, and Lucan. Added fructose: a principal driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its consequences. 372–381.
  • Hujoel, P. 2009. Dietary carbohydrates and dental-systemic diseases. J Dent Res 88(6): 490–502.
  • Bes-Rastrollo, M., et al. 2013. Financial conflicts of interest and reporting bias regarding the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review of systematic reviews. PLoS Med 10(12): e1001578; discussion e1001578.
  • McDonough, D. J., and C. M. Wilhelmj. 1954. The effect of excess salt intake on human blood pressure. Am J Dig Dis 21(7): 180–181; Murray, R. H., et al. 1978. Blood pressure responses to extremes of sodium intake in normal man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 159(3): 432– 436.
  • 35. Kirkendall. The effect of dietary sodium chloride on blood pressure, body fluids, electrolytes, renal function, and serum lipids of normotensive man. 411–434.
  • Murray. Blood pressure responses to extremes of sodium intake in normal man. 432–436.
  • Omvik and Lund-Johansen. Is sodium restriction effective treatment of borderline and mild essential hypertension? A long-term haemodynamic study at rest and during exercise. 535–541; Omvik and Lund-Johansen. Hemodynamic effects at rest and during exercise of long-term sodium restriction in mild essential hypertension. 71–74.
  • Te Morenga, L. A., et al. 2014. Dietary sugars and cardiometabolic risk: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of the effects on blood pressure and lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 100(1): 65–79.
  • DiNicolantonio, J. J., J. H. O’Keefe, and S. C. Lucan, Added fructose: a principal driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its consequences. Mayo Clin Proc 90(3): 372–381.
  • Ames, R. P. 2001. The effect of sodium supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin concentrations in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Am J Hypertens 14(7 Pt 1): 653–659.

2 Commenti

  1. Marilia

    Quale sarebbe la giusta quantità di sale giornaliera?
    Grazie

    Rispondi
    • Dott. Solari

      La risposta è ampiamente trattata nel video.

      Rispondi

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